Typology of institutions
When mapping the diaspora engagement of 110 countries we identified 430+ public or semi-public institutions involved in diaspora engagement. Subsequently, we endeavored to understand the evolution of the institutional landscape and we analysed these institutions in order to propose different categories of institutions and sectors of intervention.
The typology demonstrates that there is no one configuration, but many options to learn from, test and tailor to a particular context. It is a resource that can be used to inspire institutional development and diversification, and to identify peer learning opportunities.
Types of institutions
Governments have been formally engaging their diasporas since the 1800s, for example the Mexican Secretariat of Foreign Affairs has been doing so since 1821. There are other pioneers around the world, including China and Lebanon. In the 1970s institutions started to emerge progressively, particularly in Asia, but institutionalisation was sporadic and uneven until the 1990s.
The following timelines show the great diversification and wide distribution of diaspora institutions as of this time, as well as key moments in recent history which have driven interest in diaspora engagement.